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Epilating

Ecto Derma Polyclinic - Dental - Medical - Laser  Educational and Research Center

1085. Budapest, József krt.37.  Hungary  Tel.: +36 1 3178175 ; +36 1 2350024
Fax.: +36 1 2350025  Email:  titkarsag@ectoderma.hu recepcios@ectoderma.hu

postheadericon Epilating laser

Laser-assisted hair removal

Laser-assisted hair removal is a method available to achieve permanent reduction of unwanted hairs. Nowadays the various lasers commonly available for hair removal are the alexandrite laser (755 nm), diode laser (810 nm), and Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). These lasers target melanin and subsequently produce selective photothermolysis of the hair follicles. The longer wavelengths, such as with the 1064-nm Nd:Yag laser, are safer for darker skin types IV-VI. The risk for adverse events such as dyspigmentation, blistering, crusting, edema, and scarring is greater with darker skin types.

Intense pulsed light sources for hair removal

Intense pulsed light sources use the same principle of selective photothermolysis used with lasers to target melanin in hair follicles; however, a noncoherent filtered flashlamp that emits wavelengths ranging from 500-1200 nm is used in this process, rather than one wavelength. Different cutoff filters are used to select the appropriate wavelength for each patient; however, intense pulsed light subjects the skin to a wider range of light energies of varying absorption coefficients for the chromospheres, which may expose the patient to some unnecessary wavelengths. A disadvantage of intense pulsed light is that some machines have capitated maximum energies, which can hinder those patients needing higher energies in order to achieve better results.
Studies have shown that the hair removal efficiency rate (ie, percent of the number of hairs present compared with baseline counts) is best after 1-3 treatments. Adverse effects are minimal, and the hair removal efficiency rate achieved was 76% after a mean of 3.7 treatments and greater than 50% when evaluated more than 12 months following the last treatment.
Laser and intense pulsed light devices are also capable of treating a variety of conditions in addition to hair removal, including treatment of vascular and pigmented lesions, warts, wrinkles, and even acne.

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Photodynamic epilating

A likely new method principally different from the others in main points. In essence with use a light sensitiviser material have to color the follicle. In this way we can reach the goal with less energy and more effective. These lasers works with long wavelength and wide pulse length that makes them able to treat the darker skin as well, although the white skin and dark hair copulation is the best in the viewpoint of efficiency (80-90 % result can be reached in this case). The color of hair and skin especially involve the outcome. The laser epilating nowadays the safest but careful need method to get rid of the unwanted hair with we can get long-term satisfaction.

Dr. Thomas Fitzpatrick's 6 type of skin

  1. Type: always burn down, never get suntan, often root hair and green eyes partnered with it.
  2. type: always burn down, sometimes get suntan, often blond hair and blue eyes partnered with that
  3. type: sometimes burn down, but always get suntan, often brown hair and brown eyes partnered
  4. type: hardly burn down and always get suntan, blackly brown hair and eyes partnered
  5. type: always brown, usually not burn down but easily get suntan, black hair and eyes partnered
  6. types: black skin, never burn down, black hair and eyes partnered

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The procession of the treatment

Medical excursion:

  1. particular dermatological excursion to except the diseases and the risk factors that can jeopardize the issue of the treatment
  2. Not allowed to make the laser epilating
  3. Time of pregnancy
  4. Diabetes
  5. If you have cysts
  6. If you have active autoimmune diseases
  7. Proneness for keloid or hypertropical scab healing
  8. Time of the menstruation
  9. Light sensitivity (taking pills that cause light sensitivity)
  10. White or gray hair
  11. Before and after the treatment not allowed to sunbath
  12. Choose the type of the skin
  13. Inform the patient from the treatment, side effects and the probable results
  14. Answer the patient's questions
  15. speak through and fill the acquiescent
  16. Testing: if the curing doctor finds the patient competent for the treatment, the testing can be start (for the skin's reactions). The treated skin has to be checked in 24 hours.
  17. treatment
  18. clean the skin from the deos, cosmetical materials,
  19. shave the treating skin
  20. set the laser's parameters
  21. oil the skin with US gel
  22. treatment (move the special laser head at the skin)
  23. use ice for cooling the skin
  24. use soothing gel after the treating
  25. repeat the treating every 6-8 weeks till the result is not expectable
  26. possible side effects - temporary
  27. symptoms reminiscent of bruise
  28. symptoms reminiscent of sun burn
  29. mild itch
  30. if your skin is brown before the treatment it can became lighter
  31. if you sunbathe after the treatment brown spots can emerge on the skin

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History

The process of epilating is as old as the human being and a straight consequence of the evolutionary process. The Rate is ethnically different, there are some ethnic groups which are rich of coat, and there are those of lesser extent. Hairy and hairless skin of the visual assessment changes in different cultures and rounds.

Of course, the key question in assessing is the actual role of fashion as well. In the sixties, the big hair, a strong emphasis on hair was the style, think of the Beatles, and then on to the Hair musical period. Later, partial, and total baldness was the conqueror.

Currently, the vast majority of women and even a part of men get rid of its efforts to dispose unwanted hair and try it with different methods to reach the goal. This is the one of the first cosmetical process. The substance of laser epilating is to remove a member temporally or for good from the hair. Everyone knows on its experience that the hair removing with usually a nipper is a waste of time, the hair regroup and other cases the lost of the hair is the big problem. But what can explain that inconsistent phenomena? How does a hair born? What rules involve the hair grows?

Hair Structure and Hair Life Cycle

Hair Structure

Hair is composed of strong structural protein called keratin. This is the same kind of protein that makes up the nails and the outer layer of skin.

Each strand of hair consists of three layers.

  1. An innermost layer or medulla which is only present in large thick hairs.
  2. The middle layer known as the cortex. The cortex provides strength and both the color and the texture of hair.
  3. The outermost layer is known as the cuticle. The cuticle is thin and colorless and serves as a protector of the cortex.

Structure of the hair root

Below the surface of the skin is the hair root, which is enclosed within a hair follicle. At the base of the hair follicle is the dermal papilla. The dermal papilla is feed by the bloodstream which carries nourishment to produce new hair. The dermal papilla is a structure very important to hair growth because it contains receptors for male hormones and androgens. Androgens regulate hair growth and in scalp hair Androgens may cause the hair follicle to get progressively smaller and the hairs to become finer in individuals who are genetically predisposed to this type of hair loss.

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The Hair Growth Cycle

Hair follicles grow in repeated cycles. One cycle can be broken down into three phases.

  1. Anagen - Growth Phase
  2. Catagen - Transitional phase
  3. Telogen - Resting Phase

Each hair passes through the phases independent of the neighboring hairs.

Anagen Phase - Growth Phase

Approximately 85% of all hairs are in the growing phase at any one time. The Anagen phase or growth phase can vary from two to six years. Hair grows approximately 10cm per year and any individual hair is unlikely to grow more than one meter long.

Catagen Phase - transitional phase

At the end of the Anagen phase the hairs enters into a Catagen phase which lasts about one or two weeks, during the Catagen phase the hair follicle shrinks to about 1/6 of the normal length. The lower part is destroyed and the dermal papilla breaks away to rest below.

Telogen Phase - resting phase

The resting phase follows the catagen phase and normally lasts about 5-6 weeks. During this time the hair does not grow but stays attached to the follicle while the dermal papilla stays in a resting phase below. Approximately 10-15 percent of all hairs are in this phase at one time.

At the end of the Telogen phase the hair follicle re-enters the Anagen phase. The dermal papilla and the base of the follicle join together again and a new hair begins to form. If the old hair has not already been shed the new hair pushes the old one out and the growth cycle starts all over again.
But what causes the unwanted hair increased grows?
For the increased hair grows 2 things could be responsible. One is the hirsutismus and the other one is the hypertrichosis.
The hypertrichosis: At all members of the body the hair grow too effective and not only on the hormone delicate parts. In these cases hormone level grows can not be shown. This symptom can be happened with both sexes.
The hirsutismus: 
This disease can modify the flake hair to become longer and thicker with pigments in the hormone delicate areas (face, chest). This symptom can happen in the case that the patient is a women and the examination of the hormone level is absolutely necessary.
Idiomatic hirsutismus (unknown origin): In this instance the hormone level and ingredient is normal, but the skin in more sensitive with the mail hormones (androgens)
Real hirsutismus: always be caused by the androgens

Causes:

  1. adrenal glants diseases
  2. mermaid's purse diseases
  3. adrenal glants and mermaid's purse cysts

Typical symptom is the sudden muscle grows, the speech voice became deeper. This disease can hardly involved by medicines.
Many men and women choose to remove unwanted body hair for cosmetic, social, cultural, or medical reasons. Medical indications for hair removal include hirsutism, which is excess terminal hair in the distribution of hair growth influenced by androgens (face, chest, back, abdomen), or hypertrichosis, which is congenital or drug-induced increase in hair growth in areas that are not androgen dependent. Other medical indications include pseudofolliculitis, hair growth from a grafted donor site, preoperative hair removal, and sex-change operations performed in men.

Many methods are available for temporary or permanent hair removal, each with its own relative efficacy and adverse effects. Different methods for the removal of body hair include the following:

  • Temporary hair removal - Shaving, epilation, depilation, bleaching
  • Temporary hair reduction - Eflornithine hydrochloride (VANIQA cream 13.9%)
  • Permanent hair reduction- Intense pulsed light or laser-assisted hair removal
  • Permanent hair removal - Electrolysis

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Shaving

Shaving is the method used most frequently to temporarily remove unwanted hair. Shaving is fast, easy, painless, effective, and inexpensive. The results are temporary, lasting 1-3 days, and shaving requires a constant commitment to maintaining a hair-free appearance.

Shaving is performed with a razor on wet skin using shaving cream or other lubricants, with the razor oriented against the direction of hair growth. For sensitive areas, shaving with the direction of hair growth may reduce cuts. Contrary to a widespread misconception, shaving does not result in increased hair growth. The primary disadvantages and/or adverse effects of shaving include skin irritation, cuts in the skin, ingrown hair pseudofolliculitis, the need to shave daily, and stubble.

Epilation

Epilation involves the removal of the entire hair shaft and is the most effective method for temporarily removing hair. Epilation includes waxing, plucking, threading, sugaring, and using abrasives or mechanical devices (e.g., Epilady). For Epilation to be effective, treated hairs should be long enough for the device to grasp them. The long-term effects of epilation on the hair follicle are not known. Epilation wounds the hair follicle; therefore, repetitive epilation over several years may result in permanent matrix damage, resulting in finer or thinner hairs and, perhaps, as anecdotal evidence suggests, long-term permanent reduction in hair growth. Long-term clinical trials demonstrating the effects of repetitive epilation are lacking.

Plucking

Plucking is best performed using tweezers and is a beneficial and economic method for removing the occasional coarse hair or a small group of hairs, such as those found on the eyebrows, chin, or nipples. The results of plucking last longer than shaving because hair is pulled from the hair shaft, as in waxing. This method is time consuming, tedious, and painful. The reaction of the hair follicle to plucking can be unpredictable, possibly resulting in folliculitis, hyperpigmentation, scarring, ingrown hairs, and distorted follicles. Adverse effects from plucking include pain, hyperpigmentation, scarring, folliculitis, and ingrown hair pseudofolliculitis.

Waxing

Waxing is similar to plucking and involves applying warm or cold wax onto hair-bearing skin and quickly stripping off the hardened wax and embedded hairs against the direction of hair growth. Waxing is the most expensive yet most effective method of epilation because hair is removed completely from the hair shaft in large quantities. Often, hair can take 2-3 weeks to regrow. The effects on the hair follicle of long-term waxing are unknown. However, theoretically, this modality may reduce regrowth because repeated waxing may destroy follicles. Although many kits are offered for use at home, faster and more successful results are obtained by an experienced salon-based operator who is able to apply large quantities of wax quickly to a large body surface area for faster removal.

Although no formal studies have been conducted, the recommendation is that patients using systemic retinoid (ie, isotretinoin [Accutane], acitretin [Soriatane]) refrain from waxing until treatment has been discontinued for a minimum of 6 months to 1 year to avoid tearing of the skin and scarring. Patients using topical retinoid (ie, tretinoin [Retin-A, Avita], adapalene [Differin]) should also be careful when waxing to avoid injuring the skin. It is recommended that a sign be visibly placed in waxing salons adverting clients not to wax if using systemic or topical retinoid.

Waxing should not be performed on moles, warts, or skin that is irritated, sunburned, or broken. Pay special attention to the temperature of the wax to avoid burning the skin. Adverse effects from waxing include pain, hyperpigmentation, scarring, folliculitis, and ingrown hair pseudofolliculitis. A life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and herpes simplexvirus infection of the external genitalia occurred in a 20-year-old diabetic woman following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax.

Threading

Threading is an ancient manual technique, popular in many Arabic countries, that involves the use of a long twisted loop of thread rotated rapidly across the skin. By maneuvering the twisted string, hairs are trapped within the tight entwined coils and are pulled or broken off. Adverse effects from threading include pain, hyperpigmentation, scarring, folliculitis, and ingrown hair pseudofolliculitis.

Abrasives

Abrasives such as pumice stones and devices or gloves made of fine sandpaper work by physically rubbing the hair away from the skin surface. This method can be irritating to the skin and is not commonly used today for hair removal.

Sugaring

Sugaring is similar to waxing. The sugar mixture is prepared by heating sugar, lemon juice, and water to form a syrup. The syrup is formed into a ball, flattened onto the skin, and then quickly stripped away. Similar to waxing, the hair is removed entirely from the hair shaft, and sugaring is an alternative to waxing for people sensitive to wax. Adverse effects from sugaring include pain, hyperpigmentation, scarring, folliculitis, and ingrown hair pseudofolliculitis.

Depilation

Chemical depilatories remove part of the hair shaft and are easy and painless to use. The standard chemical depilatory agents, available in gels, creams, lotions, aerosols, or roll-on forms, are the salts of thioglycolic acid (sodium or calcium thioglycolate) that were patented in the 1930s for removing the hair from cattle hides. Thioglycolate depilatories work by hydrolyzing and disrupting disulfide bonds of hair keratin, causing the hair to break in half and allowing the hair to separate from the skin. Depilatories are good for use on the legs, bikini line, face, and underarms, and they perform best when hair is at a reasonable length. Before using a depilatory, carefully read the manufacturer's instructions. Test a small site before use to assess for irritation or allergic reactions. Do not use these agents on eyebrows, near mucous membranes, or on broken skin.

Adverse effects include skin irritation, burns, folliculitis, ingrown hairs, and allergic contact dermatitis to either thioglycolate or fragrances.

Bleaching

Bleaching is not a method of hair removal, but many women use bleaching as an inexpensive method of disguising the presence of unwanted hair by removing the hair's natural pigment. Common sites for bleaching include the upper lip, beard area, and arms. The active ingredients in over-the-counter bleaching agents are hydrogen peroxide and sulfates as activating agents, a combination that bleaches, softens, and oxidizes hair. A variety of commercial bleaches are available, and the manufacturer's instructions are easy to follow. As with chemical depilatories, perform a small patch test to assess for allergic reaction.

The disadvantages of bleaching include skin irritation, temporary skin discoloration, pruritus, and the prominence of bleached hair against tanned or naturally dark skin. Reports exist of generalized urticaria, asthma, syncope, and shock in reaction to the persulfate activator added to boost the effect of hydrogen peroxide bleach.

Epilators or Epilation Devices

Epilators are small electrical devices about the size and shape of a lady shaver. Instead of a razor they have a mechanism using either multiple tweezers or rotating disks for removing hairs from the root.

You move the head of the epilator over your skin and it traps the hair (usually several hairs at once) and pulls it from the skin. Few of the ads talk about the pain involved in using them, but many find epilators too painful to use.

It's unfortunate because the pain is really no worse than waxing but when you are wielding the device yourself rather than being in the hands of the therapist at the beauty salon it's all too easy to stop and say you can't bear the pain!

The newest epilators have pain reduction built in. For example, there is one which uses ice to cool the area as epilation takes place and another uses massage.

Actually I have used these epilator devices as the sole method of hair removal on my legs for over 10 years and have no problem with pain at all. I think that the hairs get finer and easier to pull after a while and you get used to the whole process. I find the process easy to do - there's no mess and legs are done in 15 minutes without the expense and inconvenience of trips to the salon. You are in control of when you want fuzz-free legs.

Hair grows back within 2 to 4 weeks but regrowth is finer than with shaving and is similar to waxing.

I find that I usually get small red bumps all over my skin where the hair has been pulled. You can soothe these with a mild lotion and they usually disappear with a few hours. But for that reason it's best to epilate in the evening if your legs are going to be on display the next day. You should also exfoliate regularly to avoid problems with ingrown hairs.

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Advantages of Using an Epilator

  • inexpensive hair remover once you have bought the machine ($40 - $120) - no more paying for hair removal on the areas you use it until the machine dies
  • convenient to remove hair at home
  • no mess
  • good for large areas of unwanted hair especially the legs or arms
  • slow regrowth
  • hair seems to weaken over time

Disadvantages of Epilation Devices

  • expensive if you buy the machine and then don't use it!
  • painful to use especially for some sensitive areas where you may have excess hair
  • you need some regrowth to allow the epilator to grip the hair
  • difficult to use in some areas
  • skin bumps and redness
  • may get problems with ingrown hairs

Laser-assisted hair removal

Laser-assisted hair removal is a method available to achieve permanent reduction of unwanted hairs. Nowadays the various lasers commonly available for hair removal are the alexandrite laser (755 nm), diode laser (810 nm), and Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). These lasers target melanin and subsequently produce selective photothermolysis of the hair follicles. The longer wavelengths, such as with the 1064-nm Nd:Yag laser, are safer for darker skin types IV-VI. The risk for adverse events such as dyspigmentation, blistering, crusting, edema, and scarring is greater with darker skin types.

Intense pulsed light sources for hair removal

Intense pulsed light sources use the same principle of selective photothermolysis used with lasers to target melanin in hair follicles; however, a noncoherent filtered flashlamp that emits wavelengths ranging from 500-1200 nm is used in this process, rather than one wavelength. Different cutoff filters are used to select the appropriate wavelength for each patient; however, intense pulsed light subjects the skin to a wider range of light energies of varying absorption coefficients for the chromospheres, which may expose the patient to some unnecessary wavelengths. A disadvantage of intense pulsed light is that some machines have capitated maximum energies, which can hinder those patients needing higher energies in order to achieve better results.

Studies have shown that the hair removal efficiency rate (ie, percent of the number of hairs present compared with baseline counts) is best after 1-3 treatments. Adverse effects are minimal, and the hair removal efficiency rate achieved was 76% after a mean of 3.7 treatments and greater than 50% when evaluated more than 12 months following the last treatment.
Laser and intense pulsed light devices are also capable of treating a variety of conditions in addition to hair removal, including treatment of vascular and pigmented lesions, warts, wrinkles, and even acne.

Permanent hair removal

Electrolysis

Electrolysis, also termed electrology, is an effective method for permanently removing hair, especially in small areas.  Electrolysis involves the insertion of a small, fine needle into the hair follicle, followed by the firing of a pulse of electric current that damages and eventually destroys the hair follicle. Multiple treatment sessions are required to achieve a clinically significant result. The 2 types of electrolysis are galvanic electrolysis (direct current electrolysis) and thermolysis (alternating current electrolysis). Galvanic electrolysis: In galvanic electrolysis, a direct electric current is passed down a needle inserted into the hair follicle, where it acts on tissue saline to produce sodium hydroxide (lye), a caustic agent that destroys the hair bulb and dermal papilla (chemical reaction 2 NaCl + 2 H2 0 = 2 NaOH + H2 + Cl2). During the procedure, the patient holds a metal rod covered with conductive cream or gel or a metal plate attached to a moistened pad. The current (mill amperes) is set by the technician based on the patient's pain threshold, and the duration of the pulse is controlled by how long the technician presses down on the hand or foot pedal. Galvanic electrolysis is slow and may require a minute or more for each hair, including repeated insertions into the follicle. Thermolysis: Thermolysis uses a high-frequency alternating current that is passed down the needle into the follicle. The high-frequency alternating current produces heat in the hair follicle via molecular vibration, resulting in destruction of the hair bulb by thermal, not chemical, means.

Most modern electrolysis machines use thermolysis or the blend method, a combination of galvanic electrolysis and thermolysis. Unfortunately, no controlled clinical trials have compared the 2 methods, and claims of superiority of one method over the other are based on anecdotal evidence.

Significant evidence indicates that the region of the erector pili muscle insertion is the site of the stem cells responsible for hair regeneration.  More research is needed to determine the effects of electrolysis on this region.

Proper electrolysis requires accurate needle insertion technique and appropriate intensities and duration of current. In addition, only anagen-phase hairs should be treated because telogen-phase hairs are believed to be more resistant to damage. Anagen-phase hairs can be distinguished easily from telogen-phase hairs by shaving the area to be treated and, in a few days, treating only those hairs visible on the skin surface (anagen-phase hairs).

Electronic tweezer devices have been developed for home use; however, because hair is not an electric conductor, current cannot be transmitted via hair to the hair bulb. In addition, no published data prove that damage occurs in the hair follicle or that these devices produce permanent hair removal. Likely, they represent a means for temporary hair shaft removal similar to waxing or plucking, but do not work well as a means of permanent hair removal.

Important and potentially permanent adverse effects of electrolysis include scarring (ie, keloid formation) and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation, adverse effects that are dependent on technician experience and the duration and intensity of the current. Pain, a primary adverse effect of electrolysis, can be diminished with the use of new topical anesthetic creams (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics [ELA-Max]) 1 hour prior to the procedure. This should be performed in a monitored setting and only to limited areas of skin. Maintaining some sensation is desirable because pain is related to the amount of damage to the hair follicle. Other adverse effects include local bacterial and viral infections. The spread of hepatitis or HIV has not been reported with electrolysis. Electrolysis is not safe for patients with pacemakers and should not be used on these patients.

Photodynamic epilating

A likely new method principally different from the others in main points. In essence with use a light sensitiviser material have to color the follicle. In this way we can reach the goal with less energy and more effective. These lasers works with long wavelength and wide pulse length that makes them able to treat the darker skin as well, although the white skin and dark hair copulation is the best in the viewpoint of efficiency (80-90 % result can be reached in this case). The color of hair and skin especially involve the outcome. The laser epilating nowadays the safest but careful need method to get rid of the unwanted hair with we can get long-term satisfaction.

Dr. Thomas Fitzpatrick's 6 type of skin:

  1. type: always burn down, never get suntan, often root hair and green eyes partnered with it.
  2. type: always burn down, sometimes get suntan, often blond hair and blue eyes partnered with that
  3. type: sometimes burn down, but always get suntan, often brown hair and brown eyes partnered
  4. type: hardly burn down and always get suntan, blackly brown hair and eyes partnered
  5. type: always brown, usually not burn down but easily get suntan, black hair and eyes partnered
  6. types: black skin, never burn down, black hair and eyes partnered

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