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Urology

What is urology?

Urology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the diseases of the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs. The organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, spermatic cord, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis).
Screenings have an essential role int the prevention. Early detection and treatment in the
symptomless stage of the disease is the key. In this stage treatments are the most efficient and
cause less discomfort and expenses.

What are the most common disorders?
              • Testicle development disorders
              • Prostate cancer, testicular cancer
              • Inflammation of urinary bladder, tumour
              • Incontinence
              • Kidney stone, kidney infection
              • Andrology deals with:
              • male infertility
              • reproductivity disorders
              • organic sexual disorders
              • male contraception
              • male menopause
What is and urologic-andrologic examination?


Begins with patient’s medical history, focused on the previous disorders of the urinary and reproductive organs (kidney stone, conditions of testicles and prostate), and followed by bimanual examinations, according to necessity.

Examinations:
  • General bimanual examinations
  • Blood, urine laboratory tests
  • Semen analysis
  • Different types of ultrasound examinations
  • Uroflow

The examinations are generally free from pain and discomfort, except the prostate examination what is a rectal examination performed by palpation and may cause discomfort depending on anatomic conditions. General bimanual examination, focusing on the penis, testicles, prostate, seminal vesicles and scrotum.
  • Penis: scars, narrowed foreskin, curved penis, abnormal urethral opening Scrotum:
  • varicose veins, nodes
  • Testicles: their number, position, size, touch
  • Epididymis : size, pain, firmness
  • Spermatic cord: palpation
  • Inguinal lymph nodes examination
  • Prostate and sperm glands: rectal examination by palpation
  • Blood, urine laboratory tests, semen analyses complete the above examinations.
Lasers in the urology

Carbondioxide laser, diode laser. KTP laser, soft lasers. These lasers are applied in ambulatory and in one day surgery setting, under general anaesthesia - if necessary, in childhood and adulthood as well.

Nowadays laser treatment is a common procedure to heal various disorders of the, external genitalia. Not only more efficent than other procedures, but it has a better cosmetic outcome as well.


Male infertility

Diagnosing starts with questions concerning patient’s earlier diseases, surgeries, medications, eventual environmental hazards, lifestyle, followed by the bimanual examination of the genitalia. The next step is the spermatogram analysis. Optimal condition for the spermatogram evaluation if there was no ejaculation in the preceding 3-5 days. The specimen is to be collected into a sterile container. The sample can be evaluated after 20-30 minutes and it is recommended to start the the analysis within 1 hour after collection. In case of a pathologic spermatogram depending on the result of the bimanual examination hormone test is to be performed. Multiple miscarriages or severe sperm abnormalities induce genetic examinations. Functions of sperm producing organs, effects of inflammations or an eventual obstruction to sperm outflow can be assessed by laboratory tests of biochemical markers. Imaging (ultrasound, CT, MR) examinations are also performed if necessary. Disorders revealed by the above test can be treated by surgery or with medication.